Angular.js 2.0, Index Investing and Micro-Services

Beuckelaer: Girl with a basket of eggs, Wikimedia Commons.

Now here is somebody with all her eggs in one basket, literarily. I used it to illustrate what index investing tries to avoid. I thought of index investing while reading the bitter and often hilarious reactions to the announced changes in Angular.js 2.0 on Reddit. I also thought about my experience with Google services. Watch me tie all these things together in one magic feat.

First off, let me be the first to acknowledge that righteous indignation about changes to a free product or service is always a bit rich. “I used this for my benefit for months and now they changed it – I demand they fix it and continue to invest real money so that I can continue using it for free”. Right.

That thing off the table, here is my amusing experience with Google services. A while ago I amassed a number of feeds I wanted to keep up with every morning over breakfast. I created a nice multi-page dashboard using iGoogle. It worked, and it was even responsive – it loaded fast and works well on my iPhone.

Then one day Google pulled the plug on it. After venting my, you guessed it, righteous indignation for a while, I looked for a replacement and found that Google Reader can be used for that. So I moved all my feeds to it. You guess what happened next – they pulled the plug on it too, and I had to move my feeds to Feedly, where they remain to this day.

Apart from feeling like the first of the three little piggies forced to change its address often due to the certain wolf, it taught me how Google feels about its free services. While it has a number of exciting and often groundbreaking products in the air at any point, you better steer clear if long term stability is important to you. Google engineers are not sentimental about their software and change their minds at an alarming frequency, which moves things forward but also leaves a lot of victims in their wake.

The moment I learned about Angular.js and how it was bestowed on the world and maintained by Google, my first thought was ‘uh, oh’. It had Google fingerprints all over it:

  1. A vertically integrated opinionated framework that attempts to solve all your needs.
  2. It does not play well with other well loved and popular libraries
  3. A lot of the approaches need getting used to and don’t look like anything you have seen before
  4. As a result, the learning curve is steep, and once you climbed it, you feel personally invested to a degree that is not healthy

And now with the announcement of Angular.js 2.0, we have the final shoe to drop – Google’s famous impatience with continuity and careful evolution. There were many people on Reddit who evangelized for Angular 1.x in their companies, and now feel betrayed. Others are contemplating switching to Knockout, Backbone, or leaving Web development altogether.

Index Investing

To change the pace a bit, let’s look at index investing. It is an investment technique that openly gives up on picking stock market winners and losers. Through the bitter experience, some people discovered that their stock picks are worse than if they let a blindfolded monkey choose their investments by throwing darts. Instead, they decided to invest in a basket of investments in each category, using low-fee instruments such as ETFs (Exchange Traded Fonds). All empirical evidence suggests most people can’t pick winners if their life depended on it, and even those who can cannot sustain that track record over any length of time. Full disclosure – I moved all my investments to index funds and my results are way better than my dart throwing years.

Index investing is all about diversification, asset allocation and risk containment. It applies to Web development more than you think.

The trouble with frameworks

I was picking on Angular.js, but I didn’t need to go that far outside my own company. We at IBM have written a hot mess of Web UIs using the Dojo framework. Truth to be told, a few years ago it was a pretty decent option and had some solutions that mattered to enterprises (i18n, important widgets such as sorting tables and trees, and support for all god-awful IE browsers known to man). The problem is that once you write all that code on top of it, you are stuck – you are forever bound to it. Dojo was a basket we put all our eggs in, like that girl above.

In the investment analogy, we bought one stock for all our money. Any investor will tell you that such a strategy is crazy – way too much alpha for a good night sleep. At the first opportunity to reflect on our strategy and devise something saner, we decided to use stable, standard-based protocols for integration, and confine stack choices to individual services. While we can change our minds on the implementation of one service, the other services can continue to work because the integration protocols are stable.

We also learned the hard way that frameworks tend to generate additional work – the source of accidental complexity. If you find yourself spending nontrivial amount of time ‘feeding the framework’ i.e. writing code not because it makes sense for your project but because the framework needs it done a certain special way, you are the victim of accidental complexity.

As a result, we also developed a strong preference for toolkits over frameworks. It allows us to maintain control and have a better chance of avoiding nasty surprises such as Angular.js 2.0.

Micro-services and risk minimization

Our current love affair with micro-services have several reasons, many of which I have written about in the previous posts. However, one of the reasons is closely related to the subject of this post: risk control. Like in investing, our ability to pick the right framework has a dismal track record. Therefore, with our switch to micro-services, we focused first on the way they communicate with each other. We invested in stable REST APIs, and message brokers that pass messages around using open protocols such as MQTT and AMQP 1.0. Due partially to the glacial pace of protocol standardization, the danger of them changing overnight is much lower.

Our approach to individual micro-service implementation is then to confine risk to the service boundary. If the service is small enough, picking the wrong framework (if you even need a framework) will doom only that one service. A small service can be re-written if need be. The entire system cannot without a world of pain.

Essentially our approach is to officially declare that we will not assemble a committee to choose one framework to rule them all. We will apply the following mitigation rules instead:

  1. Use the simplest approach you can get away with
  2. If you can get away with server-side generated content, do it
  3. If you can get away with server-side content + jQuery + Bootstrap, do it
  4. If you need a bit of MV* magic, try Backbone combined with isomorphic templates (e.g. Dust.js partials that are reused on both server and client)
  5. If you must use Angular.js 1.3, do it, but you are on the hook to keep up with Google, and have a contingency rewriting plan
  6. We will NOT base any of the integration code on any of the frameworks de jour. Instead, we will use REST, AMQP/MQTT, JSON, HTML5, CSS3 and vanilla JS.

Be pessimistic

Someone once said that we are all writing legacy code every day, so we should strive to make it the best legacy code we can muster. Angular 1.3 turned from shiny to legacy in a flash (even though in ultra slow motion since 2.0 will only arrive in the early 2016). Our approach may be pessimistic, but it will help us sleep better in the years to come, and will make those that come after us curse us a bit less. Micro-services help in this regard because they confine the risk, in the way oil tankers break up the cargo space into compartments. If you ensure that you can change your mind about the implementation of each service, the risk and importance of choosing the right framework diminishes.

The right question should not be “should I use Backbone.js, Angular.js, Ember.js or something else”. The question should be: will I be able to recover when the ADD-suffering maintainers of your framework of choice inevitably lose interest.

Right now, a starry-eyed college dropout is writing the next shiny framework to take the world by storm. With the micro-service approach, you will be able to give it a shot without betting the farm on it. You are welcome.

© Dejan Glozic, 2014

Dust.js: Such Templating


Last week I started playing with Node.js and LinkedIn’s fork of Dust.js for server side templating. I think I am beginning to see the appeal that made LinkedIn choose Dust.js over a number of alternatives. Back when LinkedIn had a templating throwdown and chose Dust.js, they classified it in the ‘logic-less’ group, in contrast to the ’embedded JavaScript’ group that allows you to write arbitrary JavaScript in your templates. Here is the list of reasons I like Dust.js over the alternatives:

  1. Less logic instead of logic-less. Unlike Mustache, it allows you to have some sensible view logic in your templates (and add more via helpers).
  2. Single instead of double braces. For some reason Mustache and Handlebars decided that if one set of curly braces is good, two sets must be better. It is puzzling that people insisting on DRY see no irony in needing two sets of delimiters for template commands and variables. Typical Dust.js templates look cleaner as a result.
  3. DRY but not to the extreme (I am looking at you, Jade). I can fully see the HTML markup that will be rendered. Life is too short to have to constantly map the shorthand notation of Jade to what it will eventually produce (and bang your head on the table when it barfs at you or spits out wrong things).
  4. Partials and partial injection. Like Mustache or Handlebars, Dust.js has partials. Like Jade, Dust.js has injection of partials, where the partial reserves a slot for the content that the caller will define. This makes it insanely easy to create ‘skeleton’ pages with common areas, then inject payload. One thing I did was set up three injection areas: in HEAD, in BODY where the content should go and at the end of BODY for injections of scripts.
  5. Helpers. In addition to very minimal logic of the core syntax, helpers add more view logic if needed (‘dustjs-helpers’ module provides some useful helpers that I took advantage of; you can write your own helpers easily).
  6. Stuff I didn’t try yet. I didn’t try streaming and asynchronous rendering, as well as complex paths to the data objects, but intend to study how I can take advantage of them. Seems like something that can come in handy once I get to more advanced use cases. That and the fact that JSPs support streaming so we feel we are not giving up anything by moving to Node/Dust.
  7. Client side templating. This also falls under ‘stuff I didn’t try yet’, but I am singling it out because it requires a different approach. So far our goal was to replace our servlet/JSP server side with Node/Dust pair. Having the alternative to render on the client opens up a whole new avenue of use cases. We have been burnt in the past with too much JavaScript on the client, so I want to approach this carefully, but a lot of people made a case for client side rendering. One thing I would like to try out is adding logic in the controller to sniff the user agent and render the same template on the server or on the client (say, render on the server for lesser browsers or search engine bots). We will definitely try this out.

In our current project we use a number of cooperating Java apps using plain servlets for controllers and JSPs for views. We were very disciplined to not use direct Java expressions in JSPs, only JSTL/EL (Tag Library and Expression Language). JSPs took a lot of flack in the dark days of spaghetti JSPs with a lot of Java code embedded in views, essentially driving current aversion to logic in templates to absurd levels in Mustache. It is somewhat ironic that you can easily create similar spaghetti Jade templates with liberal use of embedded JavaScript, so that monster is alive and well.

Because of our discipline, porting our example app to Node.js with Dust.js for views, Express.js for middleware and routing was easy. Our usual client stack (jQuery, Require.js, Bootstrap) was perfectly usable – we just copied the client code over.

Here is the shared ‘layout.dust’ file that is used by each page in the example app:

<!DOCTYPE html>
	<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
	<meta name="viewport" content="initial-scale=1.0, maximum-scale=1.0, user-scalable=0" />
	<link rel="stylesheet" href="/stylesheets/base.css">

  <body class="jp-page">
	<div class="jp-page-content">

	<script src="/js/base.min.js"></script>
			baseUrl: "/js"

Note the {+head/}, {+content/} and {+script/} sections – they are placeholders for content that will be injected from templates that include this partial. This ensures the styles, meta properties, content and script are injected in proper places in the template. One thing to note is that you don’t have to define empty placeholders – you can place content between the opening and closing tag of the section, but we didn’t have any default content to provide here. You can view an empty tag as an ‘injection point’ (this is where the stuff will go), whereas a placeholder with some default content will be more like ‘overriding point’ (the stuff in the caller template will override this).

The header is a partial pulled into the shared template. It has been put together quickly – I can easily see the links for the header being passed in as an array of objects (it would make the partial even cleaner). Note the use of the helper for controlling the selected highlight in the header. It is simply comparing the value of the active link to the static values and adds a CSS class ‘active’ if true:

<div class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top jp-navbar" role="navigation">
   <div class="navbar-header">
     <button type="button" class="navbar-toggle" data-toggle="collapse" data-target=".navbar-ex1-collapse">
        <span class="sr-only">Toggle Navigation</span>
        <span class="icon-bar"></span>
        <span class="icon-bar"></span>
        <span class="icon-bar"></span>
	<a class="navbar-brand" href="/">Examples<div class="jp-jazz-logo"></div></a>
   <div class="navbar-collapse navbar-ex1-collapse collapse">
      <ul class="nav navbar-nav">
	<li {@eq key=active value="simple"}class="active"{/eq}><a href="/simple">Simple</a></li>
	<li {@eq key=active value="i18n"}class="active"{/eq}><a href="/i18n">I18N</a></li>
	<li {@eq key=active value="paging"}class="active"{/eq}><a href="/paging">Paging</a></li>
	<li {@eq key=active value="tags"}class="active"{/eq}><a href="/tags">Tags</a></li>
	<li {@eq key=active value="widgets"}class="active"{/eq}><a href="/widgets">Widgets</a></li>
	<li {@eq key=active value="opensocial"}class="active"{/eq}><a href="/opensocial">OpenSocial</a></li>
      <div class="navbar-right">
	<ul class="nav navbar-nav">
	   <li><a href="#">Not logged in</a></li>

Finally, here is the sample page using these partials:

  <h2>Simple Page</h2>
      This is a simple HTML page generated using Node.js and Dust.js, which loads CSS and JavaScript.<br/>
      <a id="myLink" href="#">Click here to say hello</a> 
   <script src="/js/simple/simple-page.js"></script>

In this page, we include shared partial ‘layout.dust’, then inject content area into the ‘content’ placeholder and also some script into the ‘script’ placeholder.

The Express router for this page is very short – all it does is render the template. Note how we are passing the title of the page and also the value of the ‘active’ property to ensure the proper link is highlighted in the header partial:

exports.simple = function(req, res){
  res.render('simple', { title: 'Simple', active: 'simple' });

Running the Node app gives you the following in the browser:


Since we are using Bootstrap, we also get responsive design thrown in for free:


There you go. Sometimes it pays to follow in the footsteps of those who did the hard work before you – LinkedIn’s fork of Dust.js is definitely a very comfortable and capable templating engine and a great companion to Node.js and Express.js. We feel confident using it in our own projects. In fact, we have decided to write one of the apps in our project using this exact stack. As usual, you will be the first to know what we learned as we are going through it.

© Dejan Glozic, 2014

On the LinkedIn’s Dusty Trail


There is an old New Yorker cartoon (from 1993) where a dog working on the computer tells another dog: “On the Internet, nobody knows you are a dog”. That’s how I occasionally feel about the GitHub projects – they could be solid, multi-contributor powerhouses churning out release after release, and there could be great ideas stalled when the single contributor got distracted by something new and shiny. The thing is that you need to inspect all the project artifacts carefully to tell which is which – single contributors can mount a powerful and amplified presence on GitHub (until they leave, that is).

This issue comes with the territory in Open Source (considering how much you pay for all the hard work of others), but nowhere is it more acute than in LinkedIn’s choice of templating library in 2011. In an often quoted blog post, LinkedIn engineering team embarked on a quest to standardise around one templating library that can be run both on the server and on the client, and also check a number of other boxes they put forward. Out of several contenders they finally settled on Dust.js. This library uses curly braces for pattern substition, which puts it in a hipster-friendly category alongside Mustache and Handlebars. But here is the rub: while the library ticks most of LinkedIn’s self-imposed requirements, its community support leaves much to be desired. The sole contributor seemed unresponsive.

Now, if it was me, I would move on, but LinkedIn’s team decided that they will not be deterred by this. In fact, it looks like they kind of liked the fact that they can evolve the library as they learn by doing. The problem was that committer rights work by bootstrapping – only the original committer can accept LinkedIn changes, which apparently didn’t happen with sufficient snap. Long story short, behold the ‘LinkedIn Fork of Dust.js’, or ‘dustjs-linkedin’ as it is known to NPM.

I followed this story with mild amusement and shaking my head until the end of 2013, when PayPal saw the Node.js light. As part of their Node.js conversion, they picked LinkedIn’s fork of Dust.js for their templating needs. This reminded me of how penguins jump into water – they all wait until one of them jumps, then they all follow in a quick succession. Channeling my own inner penguin, I decided the water was fine and started playing with dustjs-linkedin myself.

This is not my first foray into the world of Node.js, but in my first attempt I used Jade, which is just too DRY for my taste. Being a long time Eclipse user, I just could not revert to a command line, so I resorted to a collection of Web Development tools, then added Nodeclipse, mostly for the project creation wizard and the launcher. Eclipse is very important to me because it answers one of the key issues plaguing Node.js developers that go beyond ‘Hello, World’ – how do I control and structure all the JavaScript files (incidentally one of the hard questions that Zef Hemel posed in his blog post on blank canvas projects).

Then again, Nodeclipse is not perfect, and dustjs-linkedin is not one of the rendering engines they cover in the project wizard. I had to create an Express project configured for Jade, turn around and delete Jade from the project, and use NPM to install dustjs-linkedin locally (i.e. in the project tree under ‘node_modules’), like so:


After working with Nodeclipse for a while, and not being able to use their Node launcher (I had to configure my own external tool launcher), I am now questioning its value but at least it got the initial structure set up for me. Now that I have a good handle of the overall structure, I could create new Node projects myself, so general purpose Web tooling with HTML, JSON and JavaScript editors and helpers may be all you need (of course, you need to also install Node.js and NPM but you would need to do it in all scenarios).

Hooking up nodejs-linkedin also requires consolidate.js in a way that is a bit puzzling to me but it seems to work well, so I didn’t question it (the author is TJ of Express fame, and exploring the code I noticed that nodejs-linkedin is actually listed as one of the recognized engines). The change required to pull in dustjs-linkedin and consolidate, declare dust as a new engine and map it as the view engine for the app:

var express = require('express')
, routes = require('./routes')
, dust = require('dustjs-linkedin')
, cons = require('consolidate')
, user = require('./routes/user')
, http = require('http')
, path = require('path');

var app = express();

// all environments
app.set('port', process.env.PORT || 3000);
app.set('views', __dirname + '/views');
app.engine('dust', cons.dust);
app.set('view engine', 'dust');

That was pretty painless so far. We have configured our views to be in the /views directory, so Dust files placed there can be directly found by Express. Since Express is an MVC framework (although much lighter than what you are normally used to in the JEE world), the C part is handled by routers, placed in the /routes directory. Our small example will have just a landing page rendered by /views/index.dust and the controller will be /routes/index.js. However, to add a bit of interest, I will toss in block partials, showing how to create a base template, then override the ‘payload’ in the child template.

We will start by defining the base template in ‘layout.dust’:

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <link rel='stylesheet' href='/stylesheets/style.css' />
	This is the base content.

We can now include this template in ‘index.dust’ and define the content section:

This is loaded from a partial.
Another paragraph.

We now need to define index.js controller in /routes because the controller invokes the view for rendering:

* GET home page.
exports.index = function(req, res) {
           { title: '30% Turtleneck, 70% Hoodie' });

In the code above we are sending the result of rendering the view using Dust to the response. We specify the collection of key/value pairs that will be used by Dust for variable substitution. The only part left is to hook up our controller to the site path (our root) in app.js:

app.get('/', routes.index);

And that is it. Running our Node.js app using Nodeclipse launcher will make it start listening on the localhost port 3000:


So far so good, and it is probably best to stop while we are ahead. We have a Node.js project in Eclipse configured to use Express and LinkedIn’s fork of Dust.js for templating, and everything is working. In my next installment, I will dive into Dust.js in earnest. This is going to be fun!

© Dejan Glozic, 2014

Swimming Against The Tide

True story: I visited Ember.js web site and saw three required hipster artifacts: ironic mustaches, cute animals and Ray-Ban Wayfarer glasses (on a cute animal). A tweet was in order and within minutes, it was favored by a competing client side framework by Google (Angular). Who would have guessed client side frameworks are so catty? I can almost picture Angular News guy clicking the ‘Favorite’ button and yelling ‘Oh, Burn!!’ And it wasn’t even a burn, I actually like Ember web site – it is so …. cute.

The reason I visited Ember (and Angular, and Backbone, and Knockout) was to figure out what was going on. There is this scene in a 2002 movie Gangs Of New York where Leonardo DiCaprio leads his gang of Dead Rabbits to fight the competing gang (the Natives), and he has to wade through a river of people running in the opposite direction to avoid cannons fired by the Navy from the harbor. Leonardo and his opponent, a pre-Lincoln Daniel Day-Lewis were so enthralled in their epic fight that they missed the wider context of the New York Draft Riots happening around them. Am I like Leo (minus the looks, fame and fortune), completely missing the wider historic context around me?

Not long ago, I posted a repentant manifesto of a recovered AJAX addict. I swore off the hard stuff and pledged to only consume client-side script in moderation. The good people from Twitter and 37Signals all went through the same trials and tribulations and adopted similar approach (or I adopted theirs). Most recently, Thomas Fuchs, the author of Zepto.js expressed a similar change of heart based on his experiences in getting the fledgling product Charm off the ground. Against that backdrop, the noise of client-side MVC frameworks mentioned above is reaching deafening levels, with all the people apparently not caring about the problems that burned us so much. So what gives?

There are currently two major camps in the Web development right now, and they mostly differ in the role they allocate for the server side. The server side guys (e.g. Twitter, Basecamp, Thomas, yours truly) have been burned by heavy JavaScript clients and want to render initial page on the server, subsequently using PJAX and modest amounts of JavaScript for delicious interactivity and crowd pleasers. Meanwhile, a large population of developers still want to develop one page Web apps that require the script to take over from the browser for the long periods of time, relegating the server to the role of a REST service provider. I don’t want to repeat myself here (kindly read my previous article) but the issues of JavaScript size, parsing time, performance, memory leaks, browser history, SEO didn’t go away – they still exist. Nevertheless, judging by the interest in Angular, Backbone, Ember and other client side JavaScript frameworks, a lot of people think the tradeoffs are worth it.

To be correct, there is a third camp populated mostly by LinkedIn engineering team. They are in a category for themselves because they are definitely not a one page app, yet they do use Dust.js for client side rendering. But they also use a whole mess of in-house libraries for binding pages to services, assembling them, delaying rendering when below the fold, etc. You can read it on their blog – suffice to say that similar to Facebook’s Big Pipe, the chances you can repeat their architecture in your project are fairly slim, so I don’t think their camp is of practical value to this discussion.

Mind you, nobody is arguing the return to the dark ages of Web 1.0. There is no discussion whether JavaScript is needed, only whether all the action is on the client or there is a more balanced division of labor with the server.

I thought long and hard (that is, couple of days tops) about the rise of JavaScript MVC frameworks. So far, this is what I came up with:

  1. Over the last few years, many people have written a lot of crappy, unmaintainable, messy jumble of JavaScript. They now realize the value of architecture, structure and good engineering (client or server).
  2. A lot of people realize that some really smart people writing modern JavaScript frameworks will probably do a better job providing this structure then themselves.
  3. Many projects are simply not large enough to hit the general client side scripting turning point. This puts them in a sweet spot for client side MVC – large enough to be a mess and benefit from structure, not large enough to be a real pig that makes desktop browsers sweat and mobile browsers kill your script execution due to consuming too much RAM.
  4. These projects are also not easily partitioned into smaller contexts that can be loaded as separate Web pages. As a result, they rely on MVC JavaScript frameworks to perform data binding, partitioning, routing and other management.
  5. Modern templating engines such as Mustache or Handlebars can run both on the client and on the server, opening up the option of rendering the initial page server side.
  6. JavaScript community is following the same path that Web 1.0 server side MVC went through: the raise of opinionated and prescriptive MVC frameworks that try to box you into good practices and increase your productivity at the price of control and freedom.
  7. The people using these frameworks don’t really have performance as their first priority.
  8. The people using these frameworks plan to write a separate or native mobile client.

There could be truth in this, or I could be way off base. Either way, my team has no intention of changing course. To begin with, we are allergic to loss of control these frameworks demand – we subscribe to the camp that frameworks are bad. More importantly, we like how snappy our pages are now and want to keep them that way. We intend to keep an eye on the client MVC frameworks and maybe one day we will hit a use case where client side data binding and templates will prove useful (say, if we attempt something like Gmail or Google Docs or Google Calendar). If that happens, we will limit it to that particular use case, instead of going all in.

Meanwhile, @scottjehl perfectly describes my current state of mind thusly:


© Dejan Glozic, 2013