RESS to the Rescue

It seems that every couple of years we feel a collective urge to give a technique a catchy acronym in order to speed up conversation about UI design. Last couple of years, we grew accustomed to throwing around the term Responsive Design casually, probably because it rolls off the tongue easier then “we need to make the UI, like, re-jiggle itself on each thingy”. Although I like saying ‘re-jiggle’. Re-swizzle is my close second.

As we were working on the tech preview of the Jazz Platform Home app, we naturally wanted it to behave on phones and tablets. And it did. The header in particular is a breathing, living thing, going through a number of metamorphoses until a desktop caterpillar turns into a mobile butterfly:


It all works very well, but a (butter)fly in the ointment is that we need to send the markup for both the caterpillar and the butterfly on each request. We do CSS media query transformations to make them do what we want, but we are clearly suboptimal here. I am sure that with some CSS shenanigans we could pull it off with one set of HTML tags, but at some point it just becomes too hard and error-prone. Clearly it is one thing to make the desktop/tablet header drop elements and adjust with screen size, and another to switch to a completely new element (off-screen navigation) while keeping the former rotting in the display:none hell.

This is not the only example where we had to use this technique. The next example has the section switcher in the Project Details page go from vertical set of tabs to a horizontal icon bar:


Again, both markups are sent to the client, and switched in and out by CSS as needed. This may seem minor but in a more complex page you may end up sending too much stuff on all clients. We need to involve the server into this using some kind of a hybrid technique.

As JJG before, Luke Wroblewski has not actually invented this technique but simply put a name on it. RESS stands for REsponsive design + Server Side and first appeared in Luke’s article in 2011. The technique calls for involving the server in responsive design so that only what is needed is sent to the client. It also goes by the name ‘adaptive design’. The server is not meant to replace but rather complement responsive design. You can view the server as a more coarse-grained player in this duo, sending ‘mobile’ or ‘desktop’ stuff to the client, while the responsive design takes care of adapting to the device in more steps or decision points. It needs to because what does it mean ‘mobile’ today anyway? There is a continuum of screen sizes now, from phones to phablets to mini-tablets to regular tables to small laptop screens to desktops – what is ‘mobile’ in that context?

It seems like RESS would help us in our two examples above by allowing us to not send the desktop header to the phone and off-screen navigation to the desktop. However, the server has limited means to perform device detection. At the very bottom, there is HTTP header ‘user-agent’. Agent sniffing is a never-ending task because of new devices that keep coming online. There is a lot of virtual ink spilled on the algorithms that will correctly detect what you are running. This is error-prone activity relying on pattern matching against lists that normally go stale if not updated constantly. There were attempts to subcontract this job, but many are either stack-specific or fee-based (such as WURFL or, or a combination of all these approaches. I don’t see how any of these solutions make sense to most of the web sites that want to go the RESS route. Simply judging by the number of available solutions, you can see that this is not a solved problem, analogous to the number of hair loss treatments.

Another approach we can use (or combine with user agent detection) is to send the viewport size to the server in a cookie. This arms the server with the additional means to make correct decision because while, say, iPad is reported as ‘mobile’, it has enough resolution to be sent a full desktop version of the page, and viewport size would reveal that. The problem with this technique is that your site needs to be visited at least once to give JavaScript a chance to set the cookie, which means that the optimization only kicks in on repeat visits.

Considering the imprecise nature of device detection, you should consider RESS a one-two approach – server tries its best to detect the device and send the appropriate content, then responsive design on the client kicks in. A prudent approach would be to err on the safe side on the server and give up on device detection at the first sign of trouble, letting the client do its thing (when, say, user-agent has never been seen before or cookies are disabled preventing viewport size transmission). With this approach, we should ensure that client-side responsive design works well on its own, and consider server-side an optimization, a bonus feature that kicks in for the most straightforward cases (i.e. most well known phones, tablets) and/or on repeat visits.

By using the vision analogy, the most you would expect your server to do in a RESS-enabled site is to tell you that the vehicle on the road is a car and not a truck, and that it is black(ish). As long as you don’t expect it to tell you that it is a 2012 BMW i3 with leather seats and technology package, you will be OK.

© Dejan Glozic, 2013

The Gryphon Dilemma


In my introductory post The Turtleneck and the Hoodie I kind of lied a bit that I stopped doing everything I did in my youth. In fact, I am playing music, recording and producing more than I did in a while. I realized I can do things in the comfort of my home that I could have only dreamed in my youth. My gateway drug was Apple GarageBand, but I recently graduated to the real deal – Logic Pro X. As I was happily mixing a song in its beautifully redesigned user interface, I needed some elaborate delay so I reached for the Delay Designer plug-in. What popped up required some time to get used to:


This plug-in (and a few more in Logic Pro) clearly marches to a different drummer. My hunch is that it is a carry-over from the previous version, probably sub-contracted and the authors of the plug-in didn’t get to updating it to the latest L&F. Nevertheless, they shipped it this way because it very powerful and it does a great primary task, albeit in its own quirky way.

This experience reminded my of a dilemma we are faced today in any distributed system composed of a number of moving parts (let’s call them ‘apps’). A number of apps running in a cloud platform can serve Web pages, and you may want to hook them up together in a distributed ‘site of sites’. Clearly the loose nature of this system is great from the point of view of flexibility. You can individually evolve each app as long as the contract that glues them together is upheld. One app can be stable and move slowly, while you can rev the other one like mad. This whole architecture works great for non-visual services. The problem is when you try to pull any kind of coherent end user experience out of this unruly bunch.

A ‘web site’ is an illusion, inasmuch ‘movies’ are ‘moving’ – they are really a collection of still images switched at 24fps or faster. Web browsers are always showing one page at a time. If a user clicks on an external link, the browser will unceremoniously dump all of page’s belongings on the curb and load a new one. If it wasn’t for the user session and content caching, browsers would be like Alzheimer patients, having a first impression of the same page over and over. What binds pages together are common areas that these pages share with their keen, making them a part of the whole.

In order to ensure this illusion, web pages have always shared common areas that navigationally bind them to other pages. For the illusion to be complete, these common areas need to be identical from page to page (modulo selection highlights). Browsers have become so good at detecting shared content on pages they are switching in and out, that you can only spot a flash or flicker if the page is slow or there is another kind of anomaly. Normally the common areas are included using the View part of the MVC framework – including page fragments is 101 of the view templates. Most of the time it appears as if only the unique part of the page is actually changing.

Now, imagine what happens when you attempt to build a distributed system of apps where some of the apps are providing pages and others are supplying common areas. When all the apps are version 1.0, all is well – everything fits together and it is impossible to tell your pages are really put together like words on ransom notes. After a while, the nature of independently moving parts take over. We have two situations to contend with:

  1. An app that supplies common areas is upgraded to v2.0 while the other ones stay at v1.0
  2. An app that provides some of the pages is upgraded to v2.0 while common areas stay at 1.0
Evolution of composite pages with parts evolving at a different pace.

These are just two sides of the same coin – in both cases, you have a potential for end-results that turn into what I call ‘a Gryphon UX’ – a user experience where it is obvious different parts of the page have diverged.

Of course, this is not a new situation. Operating system UIs go through these changes all the time with more or less controversy (hello, Windows 8 and iOS7). When that happens, all the clients using their services get the free face lift, willy-nilly. However, since native apps (either desktop or mobile) normally use native widgets, there are times when even an unassisted upgrade turns out without a glitch (your app just looks more current), and in real world cases, you only need to do some minor tweaking to make it fit the new L&F.

On the Web however, the Web site design runs much deeper, affecting everything on each page. A full-scale site redesign is a sweeping undertaking that is seldom attempted without full coordination of components. Evolving only parts of a page is plainly obvious and results in it not only being put together like a ransom note but actually looking like one.

There is a way out of this conundrum (sort of). In a situation where a common area can change on you any time, app developers can sacrifice inter-page consistency for intra-page consistency. There is no discussion that common set of links is what makes a site, but these links can be shared as data, not finished page fragments. If apps agree on the navigational data interchange format, they can render the common areas themselves and ensure gryphons do not visit them. This is like reducing your embassy status to a consulate – clearly a downturn in relationships.

Let’s apply this to a scenario above. With version evolution, individual pages will maintain their consistency, but as users navigate between them, common areas will change – the illusion will be broken and it will be very obvious (and jarring) that each page is on its own. In effect, what was before a federation of pages is more like a confederation, a looser union bound by common navigation but not the common user experience (a ‘page ring’ of sorts).

Evolution of composite page where each page is fully controlled by its provider.

It appears that this is not as much a way out of the problem as ‘pick your poison’ situation. I already warned you that the Gryphon dilemma is more of a philosophical problem than a technical one. I would say that in all likelihood, apps that coordinate and work closely together (possibly written by the same team) will opt to share common areas fully. Apps that are more remote will prefer to maintain their own consistency at the expense of inter-page experience.

I also think it all depends on how active the app authors are. In a world of continuous development, perhaps short periods of Gryphon UX can be tolerated knowing that a new stable state is only a few deploys away. Apps that have not been visited for a while may prefer to not be turned into mythological creatures without their own consent.

And to think that Sheldon Cooper wanted to actually clone a gryphon – he could have just written a distributed Web site with his three friends and let the nature take its course.

© Dejan Glozic, 2013

The Turtleneck and the Hoodie

I have always envied people with a clarity of purpose. As far as the memory reaches, I have been pulled into multiple directions. Not that this is a particularly rare affliction, but it can on occasion make one’s life more difficult than necessary. Being able to describe yourself as one thing makes introductions and elevator pitches easier.

Youthful exuberance aside, it soon becomes clear that in order to become really good at something, many interests and pursuits must lapse to the level of hobbies at best. Certainly a hobby is still better than ‘that thing I did in my previous life’. For me, playing guitar in a band, hi-fi, SCUBA, recording and producing others are all either hobbies or things I fondly remember when I look at the old photos. However, sometimes even the spring cleaning of responsible adulthood does not leave you refreshingly focused and defined. You may have a destiny to be a ‘mixie’.

For me, struggling with the forces pulling me in multiple directions continued when I was a research and teaching assistant after graduation. See, even the title ‘research AND teaching’ has the conflict built into it. And I was not alone. An older colleague of mine used to say: “This university would have been much better without students”. Of course, at that point it would cease to be a “university” but I grant that “research” part would be much easier without all the time spent on pesky undergraduates.

Joining IBM in 1994 (19 years already?), the tug of war returned as soon as I started doing interesting things in user interfaces. From joining a cool new open source project called Eclipse to creating Eclipse component called PDE to moving to Rational Jazz project, I noticed that I not only cared how things worked but also how they looked and felt. However, in the early days, a developer who also cared about pixels was like a “dog playing a piano”, to borrow words of Freddy Rumsen from Mad Men Season 1. So much so that when the beta version of IBM’s Visual Age for Java was reviewed by a magazine, it was lovingly called “ugly as a dump truck”. Of course, between the beta and the final product, the designers sprinkled it with pixel dust but I always thought that developers should care about visuals from the get go.

Well, I definitely did – when I was writing UI code, and later when I lead teams doing the same, I tried to infect others with the idea that things should not only work great, they should look polished and beautiful. Some projects I started In Eclipse (say, UI Forms) made it really hard to not care (ok, they look dated today, but so does everything else). Later on, a team I lead as part of the Rational Jazz project created beautiful dashboards we still use daily while self-hosting. Still, even though I managed to infect a growing number of people with the thought that caring about code AND visuals is a false dichotomy, the best was yet to come.

Fast-forward to 2013. After iPod, iPhone and iPad, (ok, fine, even Windows 8 and the new Outlook) everybody cares about beauty. In fact, design is now a driving force in the company I work for. Design is not called in at the last moment to ‘do its thing’, or be completely done at the beginning with a big thud (BDUF) – it is a partner at the table, where great things are created collaboratively, using Lean UX techniques. A table where the turtlenecks and the hoodies can live in peace, complement each others’ strengths and watch for the blind spots. It is OK to be a hybrid – we even have a manifest now – Manifesto Ibridi. How cool is that?

It is a great time to have both of these passions in any ratio – caring how things work and how your users go about putting them to daily use. This blog is dedicated to topics I encounter living and leading teams in this crossover area. I hope I can infect you too and maybe wake up a passion that laid dormant for a long time.

As for me, I can now proudly stand up and say: “My name is Dejan Glozic. I care about design AND I care about code. And there is absolutely nothing wrong with that. In fact it is just awesome. Let me show you why.”

© Dejan Glozic, 2013