REST and MQTT: Yin and Yang of Micro-Service APIs


It seemed that the worst was over – I haven’t heard a single new portmanteau of celebrity names in a while (if you exclude ‘Shamy’ which is a super-couple name of Sheldon and Amy from The Big Bang Theory but being a plot device, I don’t think it counts). Then when I researched for this blog post I stumbled upon project QEST, a mashup of MQTT and REST. Et tu, Matteo Collina?

What Matteo did in the project QEST is an attempt to bridge the world of apps speaking REST and the world of devices speaking MQTT with one bilingual broker. I find the idea intriguing and useful in the context of the IoT world. However, what I am trying to achieve with this post is address the marriage of these two protocols in the context of micro-service-based distributed systems. In a sense, we are re-purposing a protocol not primarily created for this but that exhibits enough flexibility and simplicity to fit right in.

You keep saying that

I think I have written about usefulness of message brokers in micro-service systems often enough to reasonably expect it to be axiomatic by now. From the point of view of service to service interaction, REST poses a problem when services depend on being up to date with data they don’t own and manage. Being up to date requires polling, which quickly add up in a system with enough interconnected services. As Martin Fowler has pointed out in the article on the event collaboration pattern, reversing the data flow has the benefits of reacting to data changes, rather than unceasingly asking lest you miss a change.

However, the problem with this data flow reversal when implemented literally is that onus of storing the data is put on the event recipients. Storing the data in event subscribers allows them to be self-sufficient and resilient – they can operate even if the link to the event publisher is temporarily severed. However, with every second of the link breakage they operate on potentially more and more stale data. It is a case of ‘pick your poison’ – with apps using the request-response collaboration pattern, a broken link will mean that no collaboration is happening, which may or may not be preferred to acting on outdated information.

As we are gaining more experience with micro-service-based systems, and with the pragmatic assumption that message broker can fail, we are finding event collaboration on its own insufficient. However, augmenting REST with messaging results in a very powerful combination – two halves of one complete picture. This is how this dynamic duo works:

  1. The service with a REST API will field requests by client services as expected. This establishes the baseline state.
  2. All the services will simultaneously connect to a message broker.
  3. API service will fire messages notifying about data changes (essentially for all the verbs that can cause the change, in most cases POST, PUT, PATCH and DELETE).
  4. Clients interested in receiving data updates will react to these changes according to their functionality.
  5. In cases where having the correct data is critical, client services will forgo the built-up baseline + changes state and make a new REST call to establish a new baseline before counting on it.

How is this different from a pure implementation of Event Collaboration pattern?

  1. Messages are used to augment, not replace REST. This is in contrast to, say, Twitter streaming API where you need to make a choice (you will either use REST or stream the tweets using an HTTP connection that you keep open).
  2. While message brokers are reliable and there are ways to further increase this durability (delivery guarantees, durable queues, quality of service etc.), REST is still counted on establishing a ‘clean slate’. Of course, REST can fail too, but if it does, you have no data, as opposed to old and therefore incorrect data.
  3. Client services are not required to store data. For this to work, they still need to track the baseline data they obtained through the REST call and be able to correlate messages to this baseline. For example, if a client service rendered a Web page from the data obtained from a REST API, it should be able to detect that a message it received will affect this web page and use something like Web Sockets to update the page accordingly.

OK, but what is the actual contract?

Notice how I have mentioned the word ‘API’ multiple times, while I keep talking about ‘messaging’ in a non-committal way. And yet, there is no ‘generic’ API – by definition it requires clear contract in the way client services can interact with the API service. If we are to extend REST Yin with the messaging Yang, it has to be a true companion and become part of the API contract.

This is where MQTT comes in. As an Oasys standard, it is vendor-neutral in the same way as REST. While the protocol spec itself is detailed and intricate, most of the experience of using the protocol is ‘publishers publish messages into topics and subscribers subscribe to said topics’. That’s it.

A very useful characteristic of MQTT topic structure is that it can contain delimiters (‘/’), which opens up a possibility to sync up REST URLs and topics. This prompted some developers such as Matteo to go for full parity (essentially using the REST URL as a topic). I don’t think we need to go that far – as long as the segments that matter match, we don’t need to have the same root. I don’t think that the entire URL makes sense as a topic other than symbolically, unless you are writing a ‘superbroker’ – a server that is both a broker and a REST server (and a floor vax and a desert topping). Or an MQTT-REST bridge. Our approach is purely that of API mirroring – a convention that still expects from services to connect to a MQTT broker of their choice.

REST/MQTT API in action

So how does our approach look in practice? Essentially, you start with a normal REST API and add MQTT messages for REST endpoints that result in a state change (POST/PUT/PATCH/DELETE).

For example, let’s say we have an API service responsible for serving people profiles. The REST endpoints may look something like this:

GET /people – this returns an array of JSON objects, one per person

GET /people/:id – this returns a single JSON object of a person with the provided id, something like:

  "id": "johndoe",
  "name": "John Doe",
  "email": ""

PATCH /people/:id – this updates select fields of the person (say, name and email – we don’t support changing the id). The sequence diagram of using such an API service may look like this:


The sequence starts with the client service B making an HTTP GET request to fetch a resource for John Doe. API service will return JSON for the requested person as expected. After that, another service (client A) issues a PATCH request to update John Doe’s email address. API service will execute the request, return updated JSON for John Doe in the response, then turn around and publish a message to notify subscribers that ‘/people/johndoe’ has changed. This message is delivered to both clients that are subscribed to ‘people/+’ topics (i.e. changes to all people resources). This allows service B to react to this change.

Topics and message bodies

Since MQTT is now part of the formal API contract, we must document it for each REST endpoint that causes state change. There is no hard and fast rule on how to do this, but we are using the following conventions:

POST endpoints publish a message into the matching MQTT topic with the following shape:

  "event": "created",
  "state": { /* JSON returned in the POST response body */ }

PUT and PATCH endpoints use the following shape:

  "event": "modified",
  "changes": { "email": "" }

The shape above is useful when only a few properties have changed. If the entire object has been replaced, an alternative would be:

  "event": "modified",
  "state": { /* JSON returned in the PUT response body */ }

Finally, a message published upon a DELETE endpoint looks like this:

  "event": "deleted"

Handling i18n

If the API service is returning JSON with translatable strings, it is customary to honor ‘Accept-Language’ HTTP header if present and return the string in the appropriate locale. Alternatively, ‘lang’ query parameter can be used either on its own or as an override of the header. This all seems straightforward.

The things get complicated when you reverse the flow. API service publishing a message cannot know in advance which languages will be needed by the subscribers. We don’t have a fully satisfactory answer for this, but our current thinking is to borrow from JSON-LD and include multiple versions of translatable strings in the message body, in a way that is done in Activity Streams 2.0 draft:

  "object": {
    "type": "article",
    "displayName": {
      "en": "A basic example",
      "fr": "Un exemple basique"


While others have attempted to create a formal bridge between the REST and MQTT worlds, when building a system using micro-services we are content with achieving REST/MQTT API mirroring through convention. We find the two protocols to be great companions, packing a mighty one-two punch that maintains API testability and clear contract while making the system more dynamic, and providing for looser coupling and more sustainable future growth.

© Dejan Glozic, 2014

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